Providing straightforward information pertaining to drugs, drug use & drug policy. The Grey Pages promotes drug-related literacy and advocates a system of viable and tolerant drug policies. This is my personal collection of commentaries, essays, tid-bits, and other such writings on everything ranging from drug use, drug policy and drug-myths, to drug-science, addiction, human behavior, and the workings of the human brain. I started this blog with a particular focus on opioids, and over the past year have found my interest gravitate toward the intriguing, ever-changing world of designer intoxicants (i.e. "research chemicals" or "designer drugs").

Wednesday, March 20, 2013

Rolling, Rolling, Rolling - Stimulating Empathogens of the MDMA Type



Source: Erowid.org
Other common names include bk-MDMA, M1, or MDMC. Methylone is a substituted cathinone with empathogen and stimulant properties. It may be considered an analogue of MDMA as well as methcathinone.

This drug is very similar to MDMA, not only chemically, but in its mode of action as well as well. Methylone had originally been researched and patented as an antidepressant in the 1990's, but was never marketed commercially.


Put simply, methylone is the beta-ketone analog of MDMA (ecstasy). It is related to methcathinone in the same way MDMA is related to methamphetamine. It is best described as an analog of MDMA where the beta carbon contains a ketone group.

Mode of Action:

Methylone is believed to induce the release of the monoamine neurotransmitters while inhibiting their reuptake as well; leading to increased flow of monoamine transmission throughout the brain and CNS. Its affinity for the serotonin transporter is somewhat lesser than that of MDMA, while its affinity for dopamine and norepinephrine transporters is comparable to MDMA. 


Based on its pharmacological profile, methylone is likely to produce moderate empathogenic effects, with strong euphoric-stimulant effects similar to MDMA.



Butylone is a compound of the substituted cathinone family and is also known as bk-MBDB. It produces stimulant and mild enactogen effects and has been sold as a research chemical. 


Butylone is the chain lengthened homologue of methylone (bk-MDMA). It differs from methylone in that it contains an ethyl rather than a methyl group at the alpha carbon. Butylone is also the beta-keto homologue of MBDB.

Mode of Action:

Butylone produces stimulating enactogenic effects. Its mode of action involves potentiation of monoamine pathways, presumably through inhibition of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine reuptake transporters and possibly through increased monoamine release.


Users have reported predominantly stimulant reactions, though its effects have also been compared to methylone (though higher relative doses are required), as well as MDMA. Positive results have been reported with a combination of butylone and methylone. Jaw tension or grinding similar to that caused by ecstasy has been reported. There are limited reports of mild empathogenic effects. Users report an enhanced enjoyment of music and tactile sensitivity.

Side effects may include gastric distress, "tweakiness", muscle tension, and anxiety or dysphoria, all of which have been reported by some users.

Typical dosages seem to range from 25-75mg, though some have reported oral dosages of 100mg or more, while effects generally last 2-3 hours, depending largely on dose and route of administration.

Pentylone (bk-MBDP)


Pentylone is a centrally acting compound of the substituted cathinone family with psychostimulant and euphorigenic properties. It was originally synthesized in the 1960's and is/has been marketed as a research chemical and designer drug. Pentylone was present in the original ivory wave novelty product in a 1:1 ratio with MDPV.


Pentylone is the 3,4-methylenedioxy analogue of pentedrone, and can be considered the methylamino analogue of MDPV.

Mode of Action:

Pentylone is believed to act as a releasing agent and/or reuptake inhibitor of dopamine, norepinephrine, and possibly serotonin.


The effects of pentylone are comparable to those of other 3,4 methylenedioxy-cathinone-type stimulants (i.e. stimulating and enactogenic), and last 2 to 3 hours. It can be taken by oral, intravenous, intranasal, and rectal routes. It may also be vaporized and inhaled. Users who smoke pentylone report a greater level of "tweakiness". Its effects have been compared to those of cocaine by intranasal or vaporized routes.

Reported dosages range from as low as 10mg to as high as 100mg or more; route of administration is a major factor. It can be swallowed, snorted, injected or vaporized ("smoked"). Swallowing pentylone requires significantly higher dosages.

Ethylone (MDEC, bk-MDEA) 


Ethylone is a cathinone-based compound with stimulant, enactogen, and psychedelic properties. It is a relative of methylone and has been sold as a research chemical/designer drug. Ethylone has a very short history of human use and little is known regarding its toxicity or safety profile. 


Ethylone is the cathinone equivalent to MDEA ("Eve"), and differs only in containing a ketone at the bata side chain position. 

Mode of Action:

The pharmacological profile of this compound has not been studied, though it is likely to produce its effects via potentiation of monoamine + serotonin pathways.


Ethylone can be expected to produce effects similar to butylone or other methylenedioxy-cathinones, with typical doses seeming to range from 50-150mg based on user reports. 

According to some users, ethylone may very well be described as a less potent alternative to methylone. Ethylone is sometimes taken alongside methylone or butylone for an enhanced set of effects.

This was taken as an excerpt from my entry on Substituted Cathinones


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