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Providing straightforward information pertaining to drugs, drug use & drug policy. The Grey Pages promotes drug-related literacy and advocates a system of viable and tolerant drug policies. This is my personal collection of commentaries, essays, tid-bits, and other such writings on everything ranging from drug use, drug policy and drug-myths, to drug-science, addiction, human behavior, and the workings of the human brain. I started this blog with a particular focus on opioids, and over the past year have found my interest gravitate toward the intriguing, ever-changing world of designer intoxicants (i.e. "research chemicals" or "designer drugs").

Saturday, March 2, 2013

Piperazines

BZP

Known chemically as benzylpiperazine. BZP is a psychostimulant compound and a derivative of piperazine. 

Its use was documented in clinical literature as early as the 1950's; more recently it has appeared as a research chemical and recreational drug. It became a popular grey market/"legal high" product in the US and elsewhere in the early 2000's but has since been listed as a schedule 1 controlled substance in the US. Its effects are similar to amphetamine or methamphetamine.

BZP acts as a mild to moderate releaser of dopamine and norepinephrine, and a weak serotonin releaser. It is also thought to inhibit the reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. 

The oral route has been common for BZP users, with dosages up to 150 mg. Its effects last several hours.

Adverse effects have included kidney damage and seizures.

TFMPP

Chemically known as trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine. TFMPP is a piperazine derivative and an analogue of BZP. It has been marketed as an MDMA alternative. It was temporarily listed as a controlled substance in the US through the DEA's emergency scheduling procedure, but the ban was allowed to expire without renewal.

It differs pharmacologically from benzylpiperazine in that it produces enactogen effects rather than stimulant-enactogen effects. Its monoaminergic action is almost exclusively serotonergic. TFMPP binds to multiple 5HT receptor subtypes as a full agonist, and shows partial agonist efficacy at the well known 5HT2A subtype. It is also a serotonin reuptake inhibitor/releasing agent, with little to no effect on dopamine or noradrenaline.

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