Providing straightforward information pertaining to drugs, drug use & drug policy. The Grey Pages promotes drug-related literacy and advocates a system of viable and tolerant drug policies. This is my personal collection of commentaries, essays, tid-bits, and other such writings on everything ranging from drug use, drug policy and drug-myths, to drug-science, addiction, human behavior, and the workings of the human brain. I started this blog with a particular focus on opioids, and over the past year have found my interest gravitate toward the intriguing, ever-changing world of designer intoxicants (i.e. "research chemicals" or "designer drugs").

Monday, February 18, 2013

Substituted Amphetamines


Also known as 4-fluoroamphetamine or para-fluoroamphetamine. 4-FA is a psychoactive compound and RC of the amphetamine family. It produces stimulant and enactogen effects, and has been sold as a research chemical or designer drug.


4-FA is a halogen-substituted derivative of amphetamine, differing only by a fluoride substituent on the benzene ring.

Mode of Action:

4-FA is a triple reuptake inhibitor (or TRI); meaning it binds to the reuptake transporters for serotonin,
norepinephrine, and dopamine, leading to a net increase in monoaminergic tone. It also acts as a releasing agent for these three neurotransmitters.

Unlike other closely related 4-halogenated amphetamines such as para-chloroamphetamine and para-iodoamphetamine, 4-FA has not been shown to cause neurotoxicity via depletion of brain serotonin.


4-FA has never been produced as a pharmaceutical or used in the clinical setting. Most of the available
Source: Erowid.org
supply of this compound has been manufactured overseas, often in a clandestine setting, and distributed specifically for use as a research chemical.

4-FA is typically purchased in its nearly-pure form and taken recreationally or as a study aid. A typical dose could range 75-150mg orally.

4-FA can be taken by mouth, insufflation, or injection. It may or may not be suited for vaporization/smoking.


The experience in its entirety can last around 4-10 hours, and typical oral dosages range from 50-150mg by the oral route.

Effects have been described as mild and amphetamine-like, with a delayed onset and a relatively soft comedown. Social disinhibition and chattiness are common, and 4-FA is often used for just this purpose. 4-FA is commonly reported to have an MDMA-like empathogenic component to its effects.

Most common effects of 4-FA include increased energy, appetite suppression, chattiness, wakefulness, insomnia, along with physiological effects such as increased heart rate, perspiration, and pupil dilation. Major effects last a few hours.
Side effects may include increased heart rate or blood pressure, dilated pupils, increased perspiration, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, agitation, anxiety or fear, paranoia, amphetamine-induced psychosis, seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, and death.



Also known as 2-fluoromethamphetamine. 2-FMA is a psychoactive compound of the amphetamine family.It has been sold as a research chemical and designer drug.


2-FMA is a halogenated analogue of methamphetamine. It differs from its parent drug in that it contains a fluoride atom attached to carbon 2 of the benzene ring. It is one of a series of halogenated amphetamines, some of which have also been sold and used as designer drugs.

Mode of Action:

2-FMA a psychostimulant with amphetamine-type effects, likely mediated via potentiation of the monoamine system (i.e. the dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin neurotransmission system).


2-FMA is sold/used as a research chemical and designer drug. Some suggest that 2-FMA is an ideal replacement for stimulant medications such as Adderall (dextroamphetamine/amphetamine mixture) and Vyvanse (lisdexamphetamine). Others claim it is a cleaner and more functional replacement for traditional methamphetamine.

2-FMA is usually taken orally or by the intranasal route. 50 to 100 mg seems to be typical for the oral dose range. 2-FMA may also be injected by the IV route. It has also been heated and smoked.


Most users report 2-FMA is a functional, "clean", or "clear headed" stimulant; that it has most of the positive attributes that are desired in a stimulant and fewer of the negatives/downsides such  as anxiety or agitation, paranoia, or severe crashing. Users have reported a mild anxiolytic effect, seemingly uncommon in other stimulants. Some report being able to fall asleep during the course of a 2-FMA experience. Many find it easy to work, study, maintain hygeine, and otherwise function properly while regularly using this compound. 

Effects are characterized by an increase in mood, increased energy, increased focus and alertness, improved cognition, enhanced creativity, social disinhibition, mild anxiolysis, and increased motivation. Major effects last for 3 to 5 hours.

Side effects may include increased heart rate or blood pressure, dilated pupils, increased perspiration, dizziness, agitation, anxiety or fear, paranoia, amphetamine-induced psychosis, seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, and death.


Methiopropamine (or MPA) is a psychostimulant compound discovered in the 1940's, which has been marketed as a research chemical. It is a ring substituted analogue of methamphetamine, where the benzene ring has been replaced with a thiophene ring.

Chemically speaking, substitution of the phenyl moeity in the amphetamine class with a thienyl moeity reduces but does not abolish stimulant activity.

MPA is believed to act as a norepinephrine/dopamine reptake inhibitor and/or releasing agent, similar to methamphetamine.

It is most often consumed by the oral or intranasal routes, and has also been smoked. Dosages are similar to those for amphetamine.

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