About

Providing straightforward information pertaining to drugs, drug use & drug policy. The Grey Pages promotes drug-related literacy and advocates a system of viable and tolerant drug policies. This is my personal collection of commentaries, essays, tid-bits, and other such writings on everything ranging from drug use, drug policy and drug-myths, to drug-science, addiction, human behavior, and the workings of the human brain. I started this blog with a particular focus on opioids, and over the past year have found my interest gravitate toward the intriguing, ever-changing world of designer intoxicants (i.e. "research chemicals" or "designer drugs").

Wednesday, November 16, 2011

Khat Leaf, Cathines, and Cathinones Vault

Catha edulis is a flowering plant which commonly grows in the horn of Africa and the Arabian peninsula. Its leaves are rich with psychoactive alkaloids and are chewed for their stimulating effect. The leafy preparation is popularly known as Khat. 

Cathine:

Cathine is an analogue of amphetamine and a precursor to cathinone. It is the primary naturally occurring alkaloid in "Khat". It differs from amphetamine with the presence of an OH group on the ethyl side chain. It is one optical isomer of phenylpropanolamine. Cathine acts as a sympathomimetic (stimulant) with similar effects to other amphetamines.  

Cathinone:

Cathinone is a naturally occurring alkaloid of the substituted amphetamine class. It occurs as an isolated compound or as one of several alkaloids present in the "Khat" plant. It is popularly used for its psychostimulant properties.

Cathinone is chemically described as a substituted phenethylamine. It is a derivative of cathine where the side chain OH group has been oxygenated to a ketone. It is alternatively decribed as a beta keytone of amphetamine.

Its pharmacological profile is similar to amphetamine, both act as sympathomimetics. It acts by triggering an increased synaptic flow of catecholamines centrally and peripherally. Its rewarding & reinforcing effects are due to increased dopaminergic activity at the mesolimbic level.

Methcathinone:

Methcathinone is to cathinone as methamphetamine is to amphetamine. It is a psychostimulant drug of the substituted amphetamine family. Its sympathomimetic effects are similar to cathinone and methamphetamine; it acts by increasing synaptic concentrations, and thus neurotransmission, of catecholamines, both centrally and peripherally.

Mephedrone:

Known chemically as 4-methylmethcathinone. Mephedrone is the 4-methyl derivative of methcathinone and has been marketed as a popular research chemical; until being banned in the US in recent months. Its effects are similar to amphetamine and MDMA. Like other amphetamines, mephedrone increases the flow of catecholamines and serotonin throughout central and peripheral circuits, this is mediated by its action at monoaminergic and 5HT (serotonergic) transporters - specifically, it induces neurotransmitter release and inhibits presynaptic reuptake. Following administration of the drug, dopamine levels in the NA are increased up to 500% compared to baseline, while 5HT levels are increased by up to 950%.

Methedrone:

Known chemically as 4-methoxymethcathinone. Methedrone is the 4-methoxy derivative of methcathinone. It differs from mephedrone only with the presence of an oxygen linking the 4-ethyl group with the phenyl ring. It has been marketed as a popular research chemical. Like other amphetamines, methedrone increases the flow of catecholamines and serotonin throughout central and peripheral circuits, this is mediated by its action at monoaminergic and 5HT (serotonergic) transporters - specifically, it induces neurotransmitter release and inhibits presynaptic reuptake.

Methylone:

Methylone is a psychostimulant drug of the cathinone-amphetamine family. It possesses stimulant and empathogen properties. Methylone is a 3,4 methylenedioxy analogue of methcathinone, and differs from MDMA with the presence of the side chain ketone. It produces its effects by inducing release/inhibiting reuptake of 5HT and monoamine neurotransmitters. Its empathogenic effects are similar to ecstasy - due to its close structural similarity and its potent serotonergic properties. The drug has been marketed as a research chemical 

No comments:

Post a Comment